Every argument uses bits and pieces of logos, ethos, and pathos. Each point is used and takes some weight in the eventual success of the argument, and influences the other two. Each point of the triangle is influenced by the context of the argument.
Logos (Rational Appeals)
Pathos (Emotional appeals)
•appeal to beliefs and feelings
•belief in fairness
•lower emotions like greed, lust, revenge
Ethos (Ethical Appeals)
•sense the author gives as being an authority, competent, and unbiased
Aristotle’s tools of persuasion:
1.) Ethos- (argument by character)- uses the persuader’s reputation, character and ability to look trustworthy; an appeal to the gut, i.e. the kid who gets elected class president
2.) Logos– (argument by logic)-techniques that use knowledge of what the audience is thinking; appeal to the brain i.e. the kid with the top grades
Tool: Concession- “using your opponent’s argument to your advantage” (45)
3.) Pathos- (argument by emotion)- reads and changes the audience’s mood; using
Tool: Sympathy-demonstrating your concern for how the audience is feeling
Three core issues (tenses):
Values (present)-Demonstrative rhetoric– “tribal talk,” present tense, celebrates the “us” and condemns the “other,” makes people feel like they belong to a certain group, i.e. commencement addresses, funeral orations, and sermons
Choice (future)-Deliberative-promises a payoff, i.e. practical concerns
Dialectic-a search for Absolute Truth, not simply persuasion
Forensic rhetoric-past tense, threatens punishment
Argument by the stick-using force (fists, yelling). Heinrichs argues that this method “never persuades, it only inspires revenge or retreat” (17).
Argument versus persuasion
— “…an argument, done skillfully, gets people to do what you want” (17)
— “You fight to win; you argue to achieve agreement” (17)
–You don’t want to outscore your opponent; you want to win. Keep your temper out of it.
Eristic–debating that seeks to win points
Concessions-concede to your opponent’s point to get want you want
Cicero’s Three Steps to Persuasion:
1.) Stimulate your audience’s emotions (mood), i.e. change the mood
2.) Change its opinion (mind), i.e. change the mind
3.) Get it to act (willingness), i.e. fill it with the desire to act
Goldilocks Technique–offering lower-priced and higher-priced stuff to make the moderately-priced goods seem just right
Humblebrag–Self-deprecation; mention a moment of stupidity to introduce a success
Syncrisis—not manipulation; instruction. Letting the person think he has the upper hand, while simply playing to his character. Ex. Heinrichs’ son and the toothpaste; Heinrichs’ son and the stew
Emotion—makes you feel something. Ex. The smoke detector, soothes when not beeping, frightens when is
Argument from Strength—”If something works the hard way, it’s more likely to work the easy way” (Heinrichs 7). Ex. the Timex Ironman, which works for Ironman athletes, so it will work for the average Joe; the picky eater likes Life cereal, so non-picky eaters will, too.
Gestures and tone of voice—Rhetoric doesn’t have to be all eloquent phrases. Tone of voice and gestures can also be persuasive or be the whole message. Ex. the cat purring in bed for Heinrichs to make his/her breakfast.
Seduction—”size me up and change my mood” (Heinrichs 9). In other words, the author makes him/herself liked by his or her audience by using non-selling techniques. Ex. the Food Network and “food porn;” Heinrichs, the used car salesman, and P.T. Barnum’s grave
Chiasmus—using the mirror image of a phrase. Ex. JFK’s “Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.”
Chanticleer fallacy-a cheat in logic with the chiasmus. Believing that because B comes after A, A caused B. Ex. the rooster who thought his crowing made the sun come up